Objective :

This subject deals with Economic operation of Power Systems, Hydrothermal schedulings and modeling of turbines, generators and automatic controllers. It emphasizes on single area and two area load frequency control and reactive power control.

UNIT – I Economic Operation of Power Systems-1

Optimal operation of Generators in Thermal Power Stations, - heat rate Curve – Cost Curve – Incremental fuel and Production costs, input-output characteristics, Optimum generation allocation with line losses neglected.

UNIT – II Economic Operation of Power Systems-2

Optimum generation allocation including the effect of transmission line losses – Loss Coefficients, General transmission line loss formula.

UNIT – III Hydrothermal Scheduling

Optimal scheduling of Hydrothermal System: Hydroelectric power plant models, Scheduling problems-Short term Hydrothermal scheduling problem.

UNIT –IV Modelling of Turbine, Generator and Automatic Controllers

Modelling of Turbine: First order Turbine model, Block Diagram representation of Steam Turbines and Approximate Linear Models.

Modelling of Generator (Steady State and Transient Models): Description of Simplified Network Model of a Synchronous Machine (Classical Model), Description of Swing Equation (No Derivation) and State-Space II-Order Mathematical Model of Synchronous Machine.

Modelling of Governor: Mathematical Modelling of Speed Governing System – Derivation of small signal transfer function.

Modelling of Excitation System: Fundamental Characteristics of an Excitation system, Ttransfer function, Block Diagram Representation of IEEE Type-1 Model

UNIT – V Single Area Load Frequency Control

Necessity of keeping frequency constant.

Definitions of Control area – Single area control – Block diagram representation of an isolated power system – Steady state analysis – Dynamic response – Uncontrolled case.

UNIT – VI Two-Area Load Frequency Control

Load frequency control of 2-area system – uncontrolled case and controlled case, tie-line bias control

UNIT-VII Load Frequency Controllers

Proportional plus Integral control of single area and its block diagram representation, steady state response – Load Frequency Control and Economic dispatch control.

UNIT – VIII Reactive Power Control

Overview of Reactive Power control – Reactive Power compensation in transmission systems – advantages and disadvantages of different types of compensating equipment for transmission systems; load compensation – Specifications of load compensator, Uncompensated and compensated transmission lines: shunt and Series Compensation.


1. Electrical Power Systems by C.L.Wadhwa, Newage International-3rd Edition

2. Modern Power System Analysis – by I.J.Nagrath & D.P.Kothari Tata M Graw – Hill Publishing Company Ltd, 2nd edition.


1. Power System Analysis and Design by J.Duncan Glover and M.S.Sarma., THOMPSON, 3rd Edition.

2. Electric Energy systems Theory – by O.I.Elgerd, Tata Mc Graw-hill Publishing Company Ltd., Second edition.

3. Power System Analysis by Grainger and Stevenson, Tata McGraw Hill.

4. Power System Analysis by Hadi Saadat – TMH Edition.


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